Winter in Moscow lasts from late November to late March. The temperature in Moscow in December, January, February can rise to +5 and fall to -25 — sometimes within a few hours. Last years, with the impact of global warming, Moscow weather becomes milder and you might not see snow coverage in December. So if you would like seeing snow for sure, better plan your trip to Moscow in January.
By the way, coming inside homes, offices, schools, shops in Moscow in winter you might feel hot. Central heating batteries are turned on in October, so Muscovites might wear light shirts and blouses at home, at school and at work.
Though for outdoor walks in winter Muscovites need a lot of clothes. Any and varied. It is better if you have different kits for all occasions of weather and life.
What to wear in winter
First, make sure you have proper footwear — warm boots with thick soles. If you can't get proper winter boots, at least buy warm insoles (for example, made of fur) and warm high socks.
In Moscow, the roads are sprinkled with a reagent so most of the main roads do not became icy. Because of this, and also because of the frequent sudden thaws, it is possible to face dirt and puddles on the roads. Do not wear shoes made of suede or nubuck. Ideally, shoes should be made of moisture repellent material (it also helps not to get wet when walking through snowdrifts) or it is worthwhile to buy a special water-repellent impregnation.
Clothing must be multi-layered. The first layer is a soft, preferably a cotton t-shirt. Then a loose turtleneck or a shirt. And a sweater on the top. The idea of multi-layer clothing is to keep enough warm air between each coating. Better don't use tight cloths as it does not help to create a warm vacuum. If possible, buy thermal underwear. Wear it under trousers and jeans keeping the same principle of layering. If to talk about usual underwear, wool pants will work. For women — leggings or leggings, tight or fleece.
About thermal underwear
Thermal underwear allows you to keep warm around the body, but at the same time removes moisture from the skin and avoids frostbite. Reliable and practical thermal underwear is most common among brands that specialize in extreme spors equipment. For walking around Moscow in winter, we recommend taking thin or medium density cotton underwear with minimal addition of polymer fibers (especially if you spend part of the day indoors for example in museums and cafes). Preference should be given to heating costumes with little moisture removal. You can find out the appropriate set by marking Comfort, Soft, Winter, Lifestyle or Cotton.
3. Head and hands
A hat made of wool and fur keeps heat well. A long and soft scarf is the best for the cold weather as you may hide your nose and cheeks inside.
Don't forget mittens, and it would be nice to have a pair with a waterproof top layer. In mittens, fingers literally warm each other, so they are preferable to gloves in the cold.